philosophy
David Hume (1711-1776) PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 24 September 2010 07:52

David Hume was a Scottish philosopher, belonging to a serious species of philosophers named empiricist. Based on the empiricist opinion, any kind of human findings is empiric. They believed that the human knowledge is a collection of evidences that gathered through experiments and sensory perceptions. This group of philosophers stands against rationalists, which argue that the reason and the innate knowledge have the major role in our understanding of the world?
One of the most important Hume's book which can be used in our research in Artificial Intelligence field, is "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding" (In Persian: "تحقیق درباره فهم آدمی"), which is an extension to his previous book "A Treatise of Human Nature" (In Persian: "رساله درباره طبیعت آدمی"), which could not take up adequate academic attentions.
In this book the author inspect the various aspects of human understanding. Based on his opinion, "Percepts" is equal to all contents of experiences. The percepts come to exist in our mind, when we see, feel and imagine. He argued that the human perceptions can be divided in two principle categories: Impressions and Ideas.
The impressions is the feelings that we achieve when we see, hear, love, hate, desire and so on; while the ideas created when we remember, imagine or dream that impressions.
There is not any kind of innate ideas at all. All of our ideas are copies of our impressions; facts that we see or feel previously. In another word, it is not possible to have an idea or imagination about an object or event, not seeing before.
There exist three kind of ideas associations, in Hume outlook:  Similarity, Adjacency and Casualty.

Hume believed that with an adequate discrimination between impressions and ideas;  beside a good understanding of kinds of ideas associations, we will be determine all of the human conscious and unconscious thought and behaviors.

To have a brief view to this philosopher and his books, I suggest the book "Philosophy: The Classics, 2nd ed. C2001" by Nigel Warburton. This book is translated to Persian by Masood Olya and published by Ghoghnoos Publications; named "آثار کلاسیک فلسفه ".

 




Last Updated on Tuesday, 28 September 2010 10:57
 
A good book PDF Print E-mail
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Sunday, 19 September 2010 04:33

In the scope of philosophy study, one of the best book i read is "Sophie's World" by a norwegian writter "Jostein Gaarder". It's a novel that have two principle characters, Sophie Amundsen, a fourteen years old girl who recieves some papers from an unknown writter, and a mysterious man who teachs the history of philosophy to Sophie via that papers. During the book, you will face with an innocent curious girl that is captured by the fascination of philosophy, and you will find that this fascination gradually prodominate you, too.

There are several persian translation of "Sophie's World", but i prefer and advise the version that belongs to "Kourosh Safavi". He works in philosophy, linguistic and semantics and so has a deep understanding on what he is translating.

I suggest this book to everyone who like to be familliar with philosophies issues. While you are reading an elegant novel in your bed, at the same time you learn philosophy.

 

Last Updated on Tuesday, 28 September 2010 10:57
 


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